EAC occasional papers
EAC Occasional Paper 17
Climate Change and Archaeology
Edited by Hannah Fluck and Kate Guest
Climate change is affecting our environment. Climate projections show that in Europe we can expect:
changes in rainfall with increased drought, and desertification as well as increases in intensity and frequency of rainfall (sometimes in the same locations);
increases in temperature, in winter and summer, increase in temperature and frequency of heatwaves;
rising sea levels, groundwater fluctuations and accelerated soil subsidence;
warmer seas, ocean acidification and changes in oceanic currents
melting of glaciers and thawing of permafrost
These climate drivers will result in changes in flora and fauna, and changes in soil conditions which will affect archaeological deposits. Moreover, human responses to the climate crisis can also impact archaeological sites.
However, while our archaeological deposits and historic places are vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, our knowledge and skills as archaeologists are also relevant to supporting society in adapting to a changing climate and a low carbon future.
In July 2021 the EAC held its 22nd Heritage Management Annual Symposium on the topic of climate change and archaeology. The papers explored the challenges faced by archaeological sites as a result of a changing climate as well as some of the opportunities for discovery; the relationship between heritage and the wider environment, including biodiversity, and the long-term perspective on environmental change and human interaction that archaeology can bring.
The impact of the climate crisis on the conservation of archaeological sites was addressed with examples from Finland (Halinen et al.), Ireland (McCormick and Nicolas), Denmark (Frederiksen); Jones et al. explored the application of the ‘Climate Vulnerability Index’ to sites in in Scotland and how it might apply elsewhere and Kountouri et al. looked at the integration of climate change into cultural policies for world heritage sites in Greece.
The relationship between the impact of renewable energy upon archaeological sites was addressed with perspectives from world heritage sites (Virágos) and the Netherlands (Dutting and Boss), and the impact of carbon mitigation approaches such as tree planting (Cordemans et al).
EAC Occasional Paper 18
Archaeology and the Natural Environment
Edited by Andreas Picker
Proceedings of the 2022 EAC Heritage Symposium held in Vienna, Austria (2023)
Archaeological sites and monuments are defined as spatial entities and are, therefore, an intrinsic part of any environment as humans perceive it. Landscape archaeology and concepts such as “landscape biography” have taught us that our environment has developed in millennia of interaction between humans and nature. Human societies adapt to and change their environments in co-evolutionary feedback loops – and archaeological sites also reflect this principle.
Obviously, human activities impact the natural environment. However, archaeologists and heritage managers rarely take a step further and view their sites and monuments from nature conservation point of view. Yet dealing with archaeological findings (and ultimately archaeological sites and monuments) can help us improve our understanding of how environments evolve and develop. This “historical” view of natural environments has been the main objective of environmental archaeology for decades. The research agendas of zooarchaeology, archaeobotany, and geoarchaeology have produced an invaluable basis for understanding past environments.
EAC’s 23rd Heritage Management Symposium took place on 24–25 March 2022 at the Natural History Museum in Vienna, co-hosted by the Austrian Federal Monuments Authority (Bundesdenkmalamt).
EAC Occasional Paper 16
Archaeology and Public Benefit
Moving the Debate Forward
Edited by Sadie Watson
The theme of the 21st EAC Heritage Symposium was ‘Public Benefit from development-led archaeology: moving the debate forward’ and the papers here reflect the challenges and
opportunities this presents. As outlined in the Valletta Convention (Article 9) the public
must be the key beneficiaries of archaeological work and the theoretical concept of
public benefit has become well recognised across our profession but there is still some
way to go to fully understand and maximise its potential. The concept note for the
21st Symposium asked attendees to reflect upon the challenge of positively shaping
the future and embedding public benefit into our practice; from project inception
through design and implementation to dissemination. The papers are a fascinating
illustration of how public benefit is viewed across the member states, incorporating
honest acknowledgements of some of the entrenched challenges involved with
creating a new way of working.
EAC Occasional Paper 15
Archaeological Sites and Monuments in the Care of the State
Sharing Our Experiences
Edited by Chris Corlett
The 20th EAC Symposium (Europae Archaeologiae Consilium) in Dublin was convened under a concept note that recognised that the State’s role in the management of archaeological monuments has many different forms throughout Europe.
The different degrees of involvement across Europe are usually a product of an individual state’s history (often traced back to the 19th century), yet common to all jurisdictions are shared issues concerning conservation, protection, interpretation, sustainability and accessibility.
An online volume with 15 full articles has been published in Internet Archaeology
EAC Occasional Paper 14
Development-led Archaeology in Europe
Meeting the Needs of Archaeologists, Developers and the Public
Edited by Agnes Stefánsdóttir
As a contribution to the European Year of Cultural Heritage 2018, the European Archaeological Council organised its annual Symposium on a topic which is closely related to the objectives of this initiative. It was appropriate to gather in Bulgaria, the country which was chairing the European Union in the first half of 2018.
One of the sub-themes of the Amersfoort Agenda published after the EAC Symposium in 2015 (Theme 1. The Spirit of the Faro Convention: embedding archaeology in society) was: Know the public: analyse the wants, interests and expectations of stakeholders in society regarding their involvement in archaeology, preferably through interactions with these stakeholders.
In the 2018 heritage management symposium, the idea was to look at the topic of development-led archaeology from a different angle and encourage a discussion between the heritage management officials, the developers, the archaeologists working in the field and the public. How can we meet the needs of these very different stakeholders and do we always need to?
The symposium comprised three sessions, the first was dedicated to the archaeologists, the second to the developers and the third to the public. This volume is a collection of 12 extended abstracts related to the 17 presentations given in Sofia.
EAC Occasional Paper 13
Dare to Choose
Making Choices in Archaeological Heritage Management
Edited by Ann Degraeve
The archaeological discipline puts eff ort into achieving the greatest possible scientific added value and supporting the potential values of archaeological heritage for society. However, choices have to be made at different stages and levels of the archaeological heritage management process. Several interests are at play when making these choices: science, society, financial, legal and logistical possibilities, public support. Choices are based on the weighing up of different factors such as values, interests and practical opportunity.
A call to action for Europe’s archaeology was set out in the Amersfoort Agenda (EAC Occasional Paper No. 10). It identifies the subject of ‘decision-making’ (theme 2, ‘Dare to Choose’) as one of the three key themes in meeting the current challenges facing archaeological heritage management in Europe.
The symposium comprised three sessions exploring the various heritage management challenges under the topics of ‘The Decision Making Mechanisms’, ‘Research Questions for Excavations’ and ‘The Involvement of Society’. This volume is a collection of 15 extended abstracts related to the 22 presentations given in Athens.
An online volume has been published in Internet Archaeology with open access to a collection of fuller papers which expand further upon these themes.
EAC Occasional Paper 12
Digital Archaeological Heritage
Edited by Keith May
The Amersfoort Agenda (EAC Occasional Paper No. 10) identifies digital technologies and the expanding phenomenon of online and social media as fundamental aspects of the future of archaeological endeavour. The aim of the 17th EAC Symposium in Brighton in March 2016 was to consider many of the challenges that this agenda raises through an ‘observatory’ of current digital archaeological practice and emerging or future trends. The unprecedented speed with which digital technologies are developing opens up many new possibilities and challenges for the conduct and presentation of archaeological research and investigation. The digital realm is one which knows few borders and so the sharing of understanding about these new methods, techniques and possibilities across Europe is extremely valuable. The contributions in this volume cover a wide geographical range of European countries from Sweden to Greece and Ireland to Moldova.
The symposium comprised three sessions exploring the digital techniques and related heritage management challenges under three broad topics of ‘Measuring and Sensing’; ‘Data to Knowledge’ and ‘Visualizing the Past’. This volume is a collection of extended abstracts for each of the 20 presentations given in Brighton. Given the digital theme, an online volume has been published in Internet Archaeology http://intarch.ac.uk/journal/issue43/index.html with open access to a collection of fuller papers which expand further upon these themes.
EAC Occasional Paper 11
When Valletta meets Faro
The reality of European archaeology in the 21st century
Edited by Paulina Florjanowicz
Over the past decades, European archaeology has focused on different ways of researching and protecting sites in areas intended for construction and other forms of land development. This type of archaeology, which has become the predominant model of this scientific discipline, has been given different names all over Europe: for example preventive, rescue, commercial, contract, development-led.
Whichever term we use to describe it – it is worth discussing. Therefore, the European Archaeological Council chose it as the theme for its annual symposium held in Lisbon in March 2015. With this event, the EAC completed a triptych of debates on the true effects of the Valletta Convention on European archaeology started in 2013 (EAC Occasional Paper no. 9) and followed in 2014 (EAC Occasional Paper no. 10).
The idea behind the Lisbon symposium was to integrate the approach of the Valletta Convention, which shaped preventive archaeology policies as we know them, with the concept of heritage communities contained in the Faro Convention, which determines the 21st century holistic and participatory approach to heritage governance.
The symposium comprised three sessions outlined by the EAC Board as a consequence of experience from the two previous conferences. Overall, the volume covers 21 contributions from archaeologists throughout Europe. The scope of issues tackled is quite broad, from pure legal analysis to emotions unleashed with archaeological discoveries related to the tragic history of Europe in the 20th century. Wide geographical representation is provided by authors from a range of countries extending from Portugal to Estonia.
EAC Occasional Paper 10
Setting the Agenda
Giving New Meaning to the European Archaeological Heritage
Edited by Peter A.C. Schut, Djurra Scharff and Leonard C. de Wit
More than two decades after the signing of the Valletta Convention the time is ripe to draw up a new agenda for how Europe should manage its archaeological heritage. With this purpose in mind, the EAC organised two symposiums that were attended by heritage managers from 25 European countries. At the first symposium in Saranda, Albania, we looked back at twenty years of ‘Valletta’, identifying its benefits, problems and challenges. The results of these discussions can be found in EAC Occasional Paper No. 9.
The second symposium was held in Amersfoort, the Netherlands, and took the form of a working conference. The results are published in this volume, which largely comprises the Amersfoort Agenda for managing the archaeological heritage in Europe. This agenda ties in with the ideas of the Council of Europe’s Faro Convention on the Value of Cultural Heritage for Society (2005). A link is also made with the ideas of the European Union, as expressed in the Conclusions on Cultural Heritage adopted by the Council of the European Union (2014) and a Communication adopted by the European Commission (2014). The zeitgeist calls for an acknowledgement of the multiple values of archaeological heritage for society and recognises the potential role of archaeological heritage in sustainable development.
The Amersfoort Agenda has three themes: 1. Embedding archaeology in society, 2. Dare to choose, and 3. Managing the sources of European history. The various articles in this book are organised under these themes, which they explore in greater depth. Reports of the break-out sessions have also been included so that readers can follow the discussions that have led to the Amersfoort Agenda.
EAC Occasional Paper 9
The Valletta Convention
Twenty Years After - Benefits, Problems, Challenges
Edited by Victoria M. van der Haas and Peter A.C. Schut
The Valletta Convention (1992) was the result of a process which started with the Convention of London (1969) where the foundation for contemporary archaeological preservation was laid. The inclusion of archaeology in the process of spatial planning was one of the most important milestones. In most European countries it meant a strong growth of archaeological research, including the emergence of commercial archaeology, while also in situ conservation received increasing attention. However, the close interaction between archaeology and spatial planning also meant a risk. Over the past few years it has not been easy for archaeological research due to the recession.
The youngest generation of archaeologists can hardly comprehend what archaeology was like before 1992. Now, in 2014, we can say that Valletta has become visible in all parts of archaeology. Not only are new residential quarters, industrial and infrastructural works archaeologically investigated, also within the field of public information and cultural tourism there are important achievements. The implications for education are great. Although the main focus within archaeological training lies in scientific research, there is a visible expansion of training for policy archaeologists.
In this publication the main topics are addressed. Not only the successes, but also the challenges and possible solutions will be addressed. Due to articles written by experts from different parts of Europe, this publication provides the reader with a good view of the state of affairs in various countries.
EAC Occasional Paper 8
Perspectives on Public Awareness, Participation and Protection in Archaeological Heritage Management
Edited by Agneta Lagerlöf
The increasing numbers of reports on tampering with ancient monuments and archaeological materials may reflect more acts of plunder. But it could also reflect a higher incidence of reporting of such acts to competent authorities or a combination of them both. A third solution is of course that acts of plunder are currently deemed more newsworthy than before in our part of the world. And if this is the case, we must ask why has this become important now, and also, how does this influence our understanding of what is happening? The complexity of this problem and the ethical issues it raises require us to examine our view of the archaeological source material and archaeology as a profession in relation to society at large.
An international conference took place in Paris 2012 with participants from different European countries. The purpose of the conference was to discuss the kind of measures that need to be taken and what the societal consequences of these may be.
EAC Occasional Paper 7
Heritage Reinvents Europe
Edited by Dirk Callebaut, Jan Mařík and Jana Maříková-Kubková
224 pp., with 152 illustrations
Unity in Diversity, the motto of the European Union, has, since World War II, seldom been as relevant as it is today. In these difficult economic times Europe is more and more confronted with the phenomenon that citizens openly stand up for the defence of their national and regional interests. This has put enormous pressure on the process of European integration and the concept of a shared European identity based on the cultures of individual EU member states. Thus, understanding the diversity of European cultural heritage and its presentation to the broadest audience represents a challenge that can be answered by diversified group of scientists, including archaeologists, historians, culturologists, museologists etc. By choosing “Heritage reinvents Europe” as the theme for the 12th EAC colloquium that was held between the 17th–19th March 2011, in the Provincial Heritage Centre in Ename, Belgium, the board of the Europae Archaeologiae Consilium made its contribution to the understanding of the key concept of a shared European identity.
EAC Occasional Paper 6
Large-scale excavations in Europe:
Fieldwork strategies and scientific outcome
Proceedings of the International Conference
Esslingen am Neckar, Germany, 7th – 8th October 2008
Edited by Jorg Bofinger and Dirk Krausse, Budapest, 2012
208 pp., with 185 illustrations
During the last decades, the number of large-scale excavations has increased significantly. Such excavations became an important element of archaeological cultural heritage management. This kind of large-area fi eldwork off ers not only new data, fi nds and additional archaeological sites, but also gives new insights into the interpretation of archaeological landscapes as a whole. Our view of the results of older excavations and our ideas on settlement structures and land use in the past has changed dramatically. New patterns concerning human “off site activities”, e.g. fi eld systems, or types of sites which were previously underrepresented, can only be detected by large-scale excavations. Linear projects especially, such as pipelines and motorways, off er the possibility to extrapolate and propose models of land use and environment on the regional and macro-regional scale.
EAC Occasional Paper 5
Remote Sensing for Archaeological Heritage Management
David C Cowley, Budapest, 2011
312 pp., with 218 illustrations
Remote sensing is one of the main foundations of archaeological data, under pinning knowledge and understanding of the historic environment. The volume, arising from a symposium organised by the Europae Archaeologiae Consilium (EAC) and the Aerial Archaeology Research Group (AARG), provides up to date expert statements on the methodologies, achievements and potential of remote sensing with a particular focus on archaeological heritage management. Well-established approaches and techniques are set alongside new technologies and data-sources, with discussion covering relative merits and applicability, and the need for integrated approaches to understanding and managing the landscape. Discussions cover aerial photography, both modern and historic, LiDAR, satellite imagery, multi-and hyper-spectral data, sonar and geophysical survey, addressing both terrestrial and maritime contexts. Case studies drawn from the contrasting landscapes of Europe illustrate best practice and innovative projects.
EAC Occasional Paper 4
Heritage Management of Farmed and Forested Landscapes in Europe
Stephen Trow, Vincent Holyoak and Emmet Byrnes, Budapest 2010
184 Seiten, 111 Farbabbildungen
Some 40 per cent of Europe is farmed and 47 per cent forested. The future of the majority of Europe’s archaeological sites therefore depends on rural land uses that lie outside the spatial planning and development control systems of its various nation states. This volume, produced by the European Association of Archaeologists (EAA) and Europae Archaeologiae Consilium (EAC) Joint Working Group on Farming, Forestry and Rural Land Management, examines the challenges posed by agriculture, forestry and other rural land uses in terms of the long-term conservation of Europe’s archaeological sites and the management of its historic landscapes. Profusely illustrated and with contributions from no fewer than 13 different European countries, the volume will be essential reading for anyone concerned with contemporary heritage management, policy-making and legislation.